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# Spreadsheet Functions and Formulas

This article lists the built-in functions and formulas supported by the Spreadsheet for Blazor.

## Formulas

A Spreadsheet formula starts with the equal sign `=` and can include:

• References to cells and ranges
• Constants and literals
• Operators
• Functions

For more information, you can refer to:

To use `=` as a string at the beginning of a cell, start with an apostrophe: `'=`.

## Function List

The Telerik Spreadsheet supports a large variety of functions. They work in the same way as in other Excel editors, so the following documentations are also applicable:

The function names are case insensitive.

Function Name Description
`ABS` Returns the absolute (non-negative) value of a number.
`ACOS` Returns the principal value of the arccosine of a number in radians.
`ACOSH` Returns the principal value of the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.
`ACOT` Returns the principal value of the arccotangent of a number in radians.
`ACOTH` Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number.
`ADDRESS` Returns a cell address (reference) as text.
`AGGREGATE` Returns an aggregate of a list or database.
`ARABIC` Converts Roman numbers to Arabic as numbers.
`AREAS` Returns the number of areas in a reference.
`ASIN` Returns the principal value of the arcsine of a number in radians.
`ASINH` Returns the principal value of the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.
`ATAN` Returns the principal value of the arctangent of a number in radians.
`ATAN2` Returns the principal value of the arctangent from x- and y- coordinates in radians.
`ATANH` Returns the principal value of the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.
`AVEDEV` Calculates the average of the absolute deviations of listed values.
`AVERAGE` Returns the average of a set of numbers.
`AVERAGEA` Returns the average of values, including numbers, text, and logical values.
`AVERAGEIF` Returns the average of all cells in a range based on a given criteria.
`AVERAGEIFS` Returns the average of all cells in a range based on multiple criteria.
`BASE` Converts a number into a text representation with the given base.
`BETA.DIST` Returns the beta cumulative distribution function.
`BETA.INV` Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution.
`BETADIST` Returns the value of the probability density function or the cumulative distribution function for the beta distribution.
`BINOM.DIST` Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability.
`BINOM.DIST.RANGE` Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution.
`BINOM.INV` Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
`BINOMDIST` Returns the binomial distribution probability.
`CEILING` Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
`CEILING.MATH` Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
`CEILING.PRECISE` Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
`CHAR` Returns character represented by a given number.
`CHISQ.DIST` Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
`CHISQ.DIST.RT` Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
`CHISQ.INV` Returns the cumulative beta probability density function.
`CHISQ.INV.RT` Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution.
`CHISQ.TEST` Returns the test for independence.
`CHOOSE` Uses an index to return a value from a list of values.
`CLEAN` Removes all nonprintable characters from a text.
`CODE` Returns a numeric value corresponding to the first character in a text string.
`COLUMN` Returns the column number(s) of a reference.
`COLUMNS` Returns the number of columns in a given range.
`COMBIN` Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects.
`COMBINA` Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of objects.
`CONCATENATE` Joins a number of text strings into one text string.
`CONFIDENCE.NORM` Returns the confidence interval for a population mean.
`CONFIDENCE.T` Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution.
`COS` Returns the cosine of a number. The angle is returned in radians.
`COSH` Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
`COT` Returns the cotangent of an angle, specified in radians.
`COTH` Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number.
`COUNT` Counts the number of numbers in a list of arguments.
`COUNTA` Counts the number of values in a list of arguments.
`COUNTBLANK` Counts the number of blank cells in a range.
`COUNTIF` Counts the number of cells in a range that meet a criteria.
`COUNTIFS` Counts the number of cells in a range that meet multiple criteria.
`COVAR` Calculates the covariance between two cell ranges.
`COVARIANCE.P` Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations.
`COVARIANCE.S` Returns the sample covariance, the average of the product deviations for each data point pair in two data sets.
`CRITBINOM` Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value.
`CSC` Returns the cosecant of an angle, specified in radians.
`CSCH` Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle, specified in radians.
`DATE` Returns a date value constructed from year, month, and day values.
`DATEVALUE` Returns the date converting it into the form of text to a serial number.
`DAY` Returns the day by converting it from a serial number.
`DAYS` Returns the number of days between two dates.
`DAYS360` Returns the number of days between two dates using the 360-day year.
`DECIMAL` Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number.
`DEGREES` Converts radians to degrees.
`DOLLAR` Converts a number to text, using the `\$` currency format.
`EDATE` Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date.
`EOMONTH` Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months.
`ERF` Returns the error function.
`ERFC` Returns the complementary error function.
`EVEN` Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer.
`EXACT` Reports if two text values are equal using a case-sensitive comparison.
`EXP` Returns `e` raised to the power of a given number.
`EXPON.DIST` Returns the exponential distribution.
`F.DIST` Returns the `F` probability distribution.
`F.DIST.RT` Returns the `F` probability distribution.
`F.INV` Returns the inverse of the `F` probability distribution.
`F.INV.RT` Returns the inverse of the `F` probability distribution.
`F.TEST` Returns the result of an `F`-test.
`FACT` Returns the factorial of a number.
`FACTDOUBLE` Returns the double factorial of a number.
`FALSE` Returns logical value `false`.
`FIND` Returns the starting position of a given text.
`FISHER` Returns the Fisher transformation.
`FISHERINV` Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation.
`FIXED` Rounds the number to a specified number of decimals and formats the result as text.
`FLOOR` Rounds a number down to the nearest multiple of the second parameter.
`FLOOR.MATH` Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
`FLOOR.PRECISE` Rounds a number down to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded down.
`FORECAST` Assumes a future value based on existing x- and y- values.
`FORMULATEXT` Returns the formula at the given reference as text.
`FREQUENCY` Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array.
`GAMMA` Returns Gamma function value.
`GAMMA.DIST` Returns the Gamma distribution.
`GAMMA.INV` Returns the inverse of the Gamma cumulative distribution.
`GAMMALN` Returns the natural logarithm of the Gamma function.
`GAUSS` Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution.
`GCD` Returns the greatest common divisor (GCD).
`GEOMEAN` Returns the geometric mean of a sequence.
`HARMEAN` Returns the harmonic mean of a sequence.
`HLOOKUP` Looks for a matching value in the first row of a given table and returns the value of the indicated row.
`HOUR` Converts a serial number to an hour.
`HYPERLINK` Creates a hyperlink involving an evaluated expression.
`IF` Returns one of two values, depending on a condition.
`IFERROR` Returns a specified value if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula.
`INDEX` Returns a value or a reference to a value from within a table or range.
`INDIRECT` Returns a reference indicated by a text value.
`INT` Rounds a number down to the nearest integer.
`INTERCEPT` Returns the intercept of the linear regression line for the given data.
`ISBLANK` Returns `true` if the referenced cell is blank; else returns `false`.
`ISERR` Returns `true` if the value is any error except `#N/A`; else returns `false`.
`ISERROR` Returns `true` if the value is any error; else returns `false`.
`ISEVEN` Returns `true` if the value is even; else returns `false`.
`ISLOGICAL` Returns `true` if the value is logical; else returns `false`.
`ISNA` Returns `true` if the value is the `#N/A` error; else returns `false`.
`ISNONTEXT` Returns `true` if the value is not text; else returns `false`.
`ISNUMBER` Returns `true` if the value is a number; else returns `false`.
`ISO.CEILING` Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance.
`ISODD` Returns `true` if the value is odd; else returns `false`.
`ISOWEEKNUM` Returns the ISO week number of the year for a given date.
`ISREF` Returns `true` if the value is a reference; else returns `false`.
`ISTEXT` Returns `true` if the value is text; else returns `false`.
`KURT` Returns the kurtosis (“peakedness”) of a data set.
`LARGE` Finds the nth largest value in a list.
`LCM` Returns the least common multiple.
`LEFT` Returns a selected number of text characters from the left.
`LEN` Returns the number of characters from a given text.
`LINEST` Returns the parameters of a (simple or multiple) linear regression equation for the given data and, optionally, statistics on this regression.
`LN` Returns the natural logarithm of a number.
`LOG` Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base.
`LOG10` Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.
`LOGEST` Returns the parameters of an exponential regression equation for the given data obtained by linearizing this intrinsically linear response function and returns, optionally, statistics on this regression.
`LOGNORM.DIST` Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution.
`LOGNORM.INV` Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution.
`LOWER` Converts text to lowercase.
`MATCH` Finds an item in a range of cells and returns its relative position (starting from 1).
`MAX` Returns the maximum value in a set of numbers.
`MDETERM` Returns the determinant of a matrix.
`MEDIAN` Returns the median (middle) value in a list of numbers.
`MID` Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at a specified position.
`MIN` Returns the minimum value in a set of numbers.
`MINUTE` Converts a serial number into a minute.
`MINVERSE` Returns the inverse of a matrix.
`MMULT` Returns the matrix output of two arrays.
`MOD` Returns the remainder when one number is divided by another number.
`MODE.MULT` Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data.
`MODE.SNGL` Returns the most common value in a data set.
`MONTH` Converts a serial number to a month.
`MROUND` Rounds the number to the desired multiple.
`MULTINOMIAL` Returns the multinomial for a given set of values.
`MUNIT` Creates a unit matrix of a specified dimension.
`N` Returns the number of a value.
`NA` Returns the error value `#N/A`.
`NEGBINOM.DIST` Returns the negative binomial distribution.
`NEGBINOMDIST` Returns the negative binomial distribution.
`NETWORKDAYS` Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates.
`NORM.DIST` Returns the normal cumulative distribution.
`NORM.INV` Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution.
`NORM.S.DIST` Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution.
`NORM.S.INV` Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution.
`NOT` Reverses the logic of its argument.
`NOW` Returns the serial number of the current date and time.
`ODD` Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer, where "up" means "away from 0".
`OFFSET` Modifies the position and dimension of a reference.
`PEARSON` Returns the Pearson correlation coefficient of two data sets.
`PERCENTILE` Calculates the x-th sample percentile of values in a range.
`PERCENTILE.EXC` `Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive.
`PERCENTILE.INC` `Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range.
`PERCENTRANK` Returns the percentage rank of a value in a sample.
`PERCENTRANK.EXC` `Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set.
`PERCENTRANK.INC` `Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set.
`PHI` Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution.
`PI` Returns the approximate value of pi.
`POISSON.DIST` Returns the Poisson distribution.
`POWER` Returns the result of a number raised to the power of another number.
`PROB` Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits.
`PRODUCT` Multiplies the set of numbers, including all numbers inside ranges.
`PROPER` Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value.
`QUARTILE` Returns the quartile of a data set.
`QUARTILE.EXC` Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive.
`QUARTILE.INC` Returns the quartile of a data set.
`QUOTIENT` Returns the integer portion of a division.
`RADIANS` Converts degrees to radians.
`RAND` Returns a random number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive).
`RANDBETWEEN` Returns a random number between specified values.
`RANK` Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
`RANK.AVG` Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
`RANK.EQ` Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers.
`REPLACE` Replaces characters within text.
`REPT` Repeats text a specified number of times.
`RIGHT` Returns the rightmost characters from a text value.
`ROMAN` Converts Arabic numbers to Roman as text.
`ROUNDDOWN` Rounds a number down, towards zero, to the number of digits specified by `digits`.
`ROUNDUP` Rounds a number up, away from 0 (zero), to the number of digits specified by `digits`.
`ROW` Returns the row number(s) of a reference.
`ROWS` Returns the number of rows in a reference.
`RSQ` Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient.
`SEARCH` Finds a text value within another text value (not case-sensitive).
`SEC` Returns the secant of an angle specified in radians.
`SECH` Returns the hyperbolic secant of a given angle specified in radians.
`SECOND` Converts a serial number to a second. This function presumes that leap seconds never exist.
`SERIESSUM` Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula.
`SIGN` Returns the sign of a number.
`SIN` Returns the sine of an angle specified in radians.
`SINH` Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.
`SLOPE` Calculates the slope of the linear regression line.
`SMALL` Finds the n-th smallest value in a data set.
`SQRT` Returns a positive square root of a number.
`SQRTPI` Returns the square root of a number multiplied by pi.
`STDEV.P` Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population.
`STDEV.S` Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample.
`STEYX` Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression.
`SUBSTITUTE` Substitutes new text for old text string.
`SUBTOTAL` Evaluates a function on a range.
`SUM` Sums (adds) the set of numbers, including all numbers in a range.
`SUMIF` Sums the values of cells in a range that meets a given criterion.
`SUMIFS` Sums the values of cells in a range that meets multiple criteria.
`SUMPRODUCT` Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array elements.
`SUMSQ` Sums (adds) the set of squares of numbers, including all numbers in a range.
`SUMX2MY2` Returns the sum of the difference between the squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
`SUMX2PY2` Returns the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
`SUMXMY2` Returns the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays.
`T` Converts its arguments to text; else returns a zero-length text value.
`T.DIST` Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution.
`T.DIST.2T` Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution.
`T.DIST.RT` Returns the Student's t-distribution.
`T.INV` Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom.
`T.INV.2T` Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution.
`T.TEST` Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test.
`TAN` Returns the tangent of a number in radians.
`TANH` Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.
`TEXT` Formats a number and converts it to text.
`TIME` Constructs a time value from hours, minutes, and seconds.
`TIMEVALUE` Returns the serial number of a particular time.
`TODAY` Returns the serial number of today's date.
`TRANSPOSE` Returns the transpose of an array.
`TRIM` Removes spaces from text; replaces all internal multiple spaces with a single space.
`TRIMMEAN` Returns the mean of the interior of a data set, ignoring a proportion of high and low values.
`TRUE` Returns the logical value `true`.
`UNICHAR` Returns the character represented by the given numeric value according to the Unicode Standard.
`UNICODE` Returns the Unicode code point that corresponds to the first character of a text value.
`UPPER` Converts text to uppercase.
`VALUE` Converts a text argument to a number.
`VAR.P` Calculates variance based on the entire population.
`VAR.S` Estimates variance based on a sample.
`VLOOKUP` Looks for a matching value in a table or a range by row.
`WEEKDAY` Converts a serial number to a day of the week.
`WEEKNUM` Determines the week number of the year for a given date.
`WORKDAY` Returns the date serial number which is a specified number of work days before or after an input date.
`YEAR` Converts a serial number to a year.
`YEARFRAC` Extracts the number of years (including the fractional part) between two dates.