Once you execute your test using the Visual Studio Test Explorer you can see the results right under Test Explorer.
A /TestResults folder is created in your project directory. It contains a trx test results file and a sub-folder with a matching name. The syntax is UserName_MachineName Year-Month-Day Time.
The trx result is simply an XML file that contains the conditions that the test was run under and the results of the test. Change the extension to xml to see the raw XML in the browser.
That matching sub-folder contains an \ Out directory with the output from the text and screen images if your test included browser/desktop capture steps.